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Dying Gaul

B.C.1300 - 750, Urnfield Culture, The earliest culture attributed to Celts in central Europe.  The name was inspired by the cremation practices and storage of ashes in urns. 
B.C.800 – 450, Hallstatt Culture, discovered by Austrian engineer Johann Georg Ramsauer.  It is a bronze dominant culture with a few early iron age weapons towards the end of the period.
B.C.~600,  The Greeks of the Anatolian colony of Phocae (Foça) establish a new colony in Massalia (Marceilles, France) that is known as the land of Celts at the time.[1]
B.C.400, La Tene Culture, discovered in Switzerland.  It is an iron age dominant culture.  Its other characteristics are kurgan type graves, burials of aristocrats and the use of chariots of war. (discovered by Hansli Kopp in 1857)
B.C.~400, Celts, in an attempt to take Massalia back, attack but agree to peace later. Reported by Pompeius Trogus in the 1st century A.D. [2] 
B.C. 4th century, Herodotus, Hecataeus, Plato, Aristotle, and Ephorus all write about Celts.  Herodotus makes two references to the Celts, and both references refer to their geographical proximity to the Danube. [3]  Hecataeus describes Massalia as "having been founded in the land of the Ligurians near the land of the Celts.” [4]
B.C. 4th century, Aristotle writes about a tribe called “Segobrigi” and their leader “Nannus,” in Massalia.  According to Aristotle, the meaning of the tribe’s name is “the people living in the fort of the strong hill.” [5]
B.C.369, The Sicilian king Dionysius brings Gallic mercenaries with him to the war in southern Greece. ,[6,7]
B.C.352, An inscription found in the ruins of a temple in Athens is the list of the temple treasury, and the list includes "sidera Keltika"  (iron Celtic weapons.) [8]
B.C.335, Summer: Alexander the Great comes across a group of Celts on the shores of Danube in Balkans. [9]
B.C.323, Another group of Celtic envoy visits Alexander the Great. 
B.C.321, The death of Alexander.  His generals partition the empire but continue to fight among themselves due to disputes.
B.C.310, Celts in Balkans attack southern regions such as Paionia and Triballi for the first time.
B.C. 310-240, Callimachus describes the huge Celtic crowd of the Balkans peninsula during the migration, in a poetic way.[10]   
B.C. 323-283,  Sopater, a playwright, in a comedy routine he mentions human sacrifice by Celts.  He is the first author to talk about Celtic human sacrifice.[11]
B.C. 281, January or February,  Battle of Corupedium[12]: The last battle of partition between the generals (Seleucus and Lysimachus) of the late Alexander.  General Seleucus wins and claims Macedonia.  At the same time, the pressure of Teutons on Celts in Europe increases.  Celts began to migrate from Balkans to the south in waves. 
B.C. 281, February: Lysimachus’ protegee Ceraunos kills Seleucus in a plot in Chersonese and claims Macedonia to himself.
B.C. 281, Spring: a small band of Celts under Cambaules (possibly hearing the rumors of Corupedium and wanting to see the situation firsthand)  crosses the Danube River, enters Macedonia and advances as far as Thrace but cannot withstand against natives who are numerously superior and return.[13]
B.C. 280, The number of Celts accumulating in the Balkans during the first instance of migration is 450,000 according to Polybius. [14]  21st century historian Mitchel comments “a whole nation on the move.” [15]  It is reported that these Celts are ready for a coordinated invasion under leadership of Brennus, Belgius and Cerethrius.  However, the development of the events in the region does not support it.[16]
B.C. 280, June-July: Celts under Belgius enter Macedonia and kill Ceraunos in a field battle, and they plunder the country side.  Ceraunos’ brother Meleager becomes the king of Macedonia, for 2 months.
B.C. 280, August-September: Antipatros Etesias replaces Meleager as king upon popular demand.  
B.C. 280, November-December, Sosthenes expels Antipatros and starts a guerrilla war against Celts.  It appears that Antipatros still has towns loyal to him in Macedonia.  Meanwhile, Celts have to move due to incursions by Sosthenes and they flow into Lysimachia and Chersonesse and look for ways to cross into Asia Minor.  We do not hear about Belgius from this point on.  Instead, we hear of two Celtic chieftains ruling the Celts in this region: Leonnorius and Lutorius.
Leonnarius, with a larger group of Celts goes to Byzantion and eyes for an opportunity to cross the Bosphorus into Asia Minor.
B.C.279/278 Winter, A second wave of Celts under Brennus crushes Sosthenes and his army.  Brennus enters Greece, sacks the Temple of Delphi.  Brennus dies; while the surviving Celts dispute among themselves on their way back. Some of them is said have joined the Celts in Thrace and others have gone to Toulussa.
With Sosthenes weakened, Antipatros is back in the game claiming Macedonia. He also sends ships with emissaries to Celts in Chersonese.  But he, himself, is attacked and defeated by Gonatas in Macedonia.
B.C.279/278, Lutorius who has been having hard time to find an authority to deal, captures the ships of Antipatros or reach a deal with the captains, and Celts cross Dardanelles into Asia Minor.  It is likely that Celts continue using the Chersonese as a stepping stone into Asia Minor. 
B.C. 278, Winter, Tectosages under Leonnorius  sign an agreement with King Nicomedes Bithynia to settle in Asia Minor in return for their services to the king.[17].  So, Nicomedes’ father Zipoetas is probably dead in the first month of 278.  Leonorius and his Celts enter Asia Minor via the Strait of Bosphorus.[18]  Celts find the kingdoms of Bithynia, Pontus, Seleucos and Armenia, there.  The status of Pergammon is not clear. 
B.C. 277, (Spring) Battle of Lysimacheia: Celts battle Antigonus Gonatas at Lysimacheia.  Before the battle, they study the internals of their sacrificial victims, possibly animals only.[19]  Antigonus Gonatas, as the new king of Macedonia, clears the Celts off the Thracian Chersonesse and takes over Lysimacheia.
This effectively ends the uncontrolled passage of Celts into Asia Minor.  Despite all the annihilation stories, Gonatas, a well mannered and concientious leader, appears to have kept these Celts in his service, as well as finding these Celts jobs elsewhere as merceneries.
B.C. 277, (late Summer[20]) Cerethrius, in command of another Celtic army, arrives in Chersonnese, possibly with the hopes of crossing to Asia Minor as well, but is ambushed by Gonatas while trying to take over.
B.C. 277, Fall: upon the news of Cerethrius, Commontorius, another Celtic chief who has been wandering in Thrace, decides to retreat east and founds the Kingdom of Tylis.
Meanwhile, Lutorius does not (or can not) stay in western Asia Minor and proceeds to east to join the Tectosages of Leonorius. 
B.C.277, Final months: Celts support the Bithynian king Nicomedes during the civil war against his revolting brother Zipoetas.  Nicomedes prevails. 
B.C.277, Following the civil war, Celts (Galatians) return to the western plains of Asia Minor.[21]  At this point, it is reported that Galatians were made up of 3 main tribes: Trocmi, Tolistobogii ve Tectosage, operating from north to south, in Pergammon and Seleucos lands in Asia Minor, in the given order.
B.C.276, 4000 Celts, sent by Gonatas, arrive in Egypt to work as mercenaries.  Galatians of Asia Minor, reportedly, continue to provide such services for Egypt for the next 300 years.[22] (They also try to take over Egypt, unsuccessfully.)
B.C.276/274, The Seleucos king, Antiochus I, shows up in Sardes to fight against Galatians but returns east due to the brewing war in Syria. 
B.C. 274? or before? Galatians side with the Pontus kings on a dispute on Amasis and prevent the Ptolemaic (Egyptian) Fleet’s  seaborn invasion at Herakleia.[23]
B.C.274-271,  Antiochus I returns to Asia Minor after winning the 1st Syrian war. 
B.C.268, Battle of the Elephants: Antiochus wins this war near Sardes but recognizes the settlement of Galatians in what is now called Galatia and continues to pay the Celts a tax (Galactica.)  This means the Seleucos kingdom was paying them taxes even prior to the battle.
B.C.266/270, Battle of Egypt and Pontic: There is no credible proof or evidence of actual occurrence of this war.[24] (conflict with Strobel’s info. above)
B.C.263, Antiochus Hiyerax fights against Eumenes II of Pergammon with Galatians on Antiochus’ side but he loses.  Meanwhile, the Pontic king Ariobarzanes dies.  Galatians attack Amisos (Samsun) for the first time.
B.C.3rd century, Ephirus makes mockery of Galatians in the plays that he wrote. 
B.C.240/241, Pergammon refuses to pay their taxes to Galatians.  Galatians, in return, attack Pergammon but are overwhelmed by Attalos.
B.C.240-235, In another attempt to collect their unpaid taxes, Galatians unsuccessfully attack the temple of Aphrodite protected again by Attalos of Pergammon. 
B.C.235-230, Antiochus Hieraks defeats Galatians near Ephessus and signs a treaty[23] with them.
B.C.223, Seleucos III dies in a battle he made against Pergammon and the Galatians. 
B.C.220, Attalos I of Pergammon brings Aigosages from Thrace.
B.C.218/212, The Celtic kingdom of Tylis in Thrace collapses. 
B.C.205, The influence of Rome increases in Asia Minor.  The Mother Goddess of the Phrygians and Galatians is carried to Rome by Romans.
B.C. 196, A letter, containing information about Tolistoboii,  from Massalia to Phocae, was dated.[26] 
B.C.196, Galatians support the new king Antiochus of the Seleucos kingdom.
B.C.190, Battle of Magnesia:  Galatians fight on the side of Seleucos against the Romans and lose.
B.C.190, Ortiagon, a Galatian Tetrarch of the Tolistoboi, unifies most of the Celts.  Of the 3 remaining tetrarchs of Galatians, Comboiomarus and Gaudatos  side[27] with Ortiagon, and Epossognatus against Ortiagon. 
B.C.190, The Roman general Gnatus Manlius Vulvo enters Asia Minor to battle against Galatians.
B.C.189, Battle of Mount Olympus: Galatians lose.  Prior to the battle, Trocmiis send their families to the territory of Tectosages for protection.[28] Until this time, Trocmiis appear to be the westernmost of the three Galatian tribes.
B.C.189, Battle of Mount Magaba, Galatians lose the battle against Romans.
B.C.189, The Kingdom of Seleucos collapses.  Apparently they pay their taxes to Galatians until the end.
B.C.188, Apameian (Dinar) Peace: Galatians who lost the war against Rome are given under the administration of Eumenes of Pergammon.  Eumenes does not treat Galatians fairly.  Meanwhile, Galatians return and re-inhabit the cities they previously fled (ie. Gordium or Uindia).[29]
At the time of Eumenes, there is still a significant flow of Celtic mercenaries through Illyria.[30] 
 B.C.185, Ortiagon returns to politics and attempts to reunite the Galatians.  But later disappointed by politics, he retires to his farm estate.
B.C.184, Battle of Lypedron: With support from their historical ally Bithynia, Galatians battle against Pergammon and lose. Galatians continue to live under the rule of Pergammon.
B.C.182, Some Galatian ri’s invite the Pontic army into Galatia.  Pergammon objects this development and with the political pressure from Rome, Pontician army retreats from Galatia. 
B.C.180, A Galatian ri named Gaezatorix appear to be the ruler of Paphlagonia located to the north of Galatia.[31]  Gaezatorix is also said to be one of the political adversaries of the late Ortiagon.[32]  
B.C.171-169, The 3rd Macedonian War: Galatians support the Eumenes II of Pergammon by sending a cavalry unit.
B.C. 169, Another Galatian ri Solovettius attempts to unite Galatians.
B.C.169-168 Galatians battle against Eumenes II of Pergammon, Eumenes loses decisively.  Galatians sacrifice their prisoners.  This is the last known record of religious sacrifice of humans by Galatians in Asia Minor.[33]
B.C. 167,  Galatians under a chief named Advertas occupy a portion of the Eumenes' (Attalids) territory (Pergammon).  Eumenes wants to punish Advertas but Romans do not permit Eumenes.[34] 
B.C.166, Roman Senate accepts the independence of Galatians from Attalids upon Galatian request. 
Galatians built castles or repair older ones and increase their administrative sovereignty. Today, occasionally previously unknown castles are found during archaeological excavations. 
B.C.163, Galatians start incursions to Cappadocchia.
B.C.160, The Celts of Scordisci clan under Bathanattos in Balkans found a new kingdom.
B.C.129-126, Rome gives a portion of Galatia to the Pontic Kingdom.  Soon, the Pontic king dies and his 5 year old son Mithridates is brought to the throne.  Galatians act swiftly, taking the Galatian lands back. 
B.C.115, Tentative birth year of Deiotarus (Deiotorix,) the first king of Galatia and the son of Sinorix.
B.C. 115-103, Story of Kamma[35], if true, happened during this time frame.  Her arch-enemy Sinorix is probably the same Sinorix who is the father of Deiotarus.[36]
B.C. 103, Mithridates II of Pontus becomes allies with Nicomedes of Bithynia. 
B.C.103, Mithridates II of Pontus occupies Galatia. 
B.C.89, The first Mithridates War starts. 
B.C.86, Mithridates uses Galatians in his war against Romans.
B.C.86, Battle of Khaironeia: Mithridates lose against Romans.  Mithridates blames Galatians for his loss.
B.C.85, Mithridates invites and have all Galatian tetrarchs (60) killed in a banquet.  Tetrarchs Deiotarus and Brogitarus save themselves by not being present at the banquet.  Another tetrarch Bepolitanos is forgiven by the Mithridates due to his young age and handsome features. 
B.C.78-75, Deiotarus helps Romans in their incursions to Isaura, Pisidia and Phyrigia.
B.C.71, Battle of Cabira (Cabeira, Neocaesaria, or now Niksar): Galatians ally themselves with Pompei and Romans against Mithridates of Pontus.
B.C.69/68, Winter: A Roman army under L. Lucullus spends the winter at Gordium (Uindia,) in Galatia.
B.C. 64, Pompei divides Galatia into 3 sections for Tolistoboiis, Tectosages and Trocmiis.
 B.C. 63, Pompei the Roman emperor builds the city of Sebastea (Sivas) and leaves the city in the hands of Galatian tetrarch Ateporix.  This is the city of the Trocmiis.
B.C.60, Kastor Tarkondarios and Domnilaus become the co-tetrarchs of the Tectosages. Rome supports the their status.
B.C.59, Deiotarus’ title of Basileus (King) of the Tolistoboiis is bestowed on him by Pompei and the Senate confirms.  Deiotarus mints bronze coins this year.
B.C.58, Brogitarus, too, receives his title of “king” from Rome, and he struck silver coins. 
 B.C.52, Brogitarus dies.  Deiatorus annexes Trocmiis to his kingdom.
B.C. 51, Deiotarus raises a Roman style army and defeats Persian incursions to his territories. 
B.C. 49, Caesar declares that he had killed 1,292,000 Celts including men, women and children during his campaign against Gaul between B.C. 58 and 49.[37]
B.C.48, August 9, Battle of Pharsalus: Deiotarus and Galatians side with Pompei during this civil war between Pompei and Julius Caesar.  However, Julius Caesar wins. 
B.C.47, Julius Caesar arrives in Galatia.  Based on political considerations and the friendly reception by Deiotarus, Caesar forgives Deiotarus for siding with Pompei.
B.C. 47, May 21st, Battle of Zela: Caesar’s and Deiotarus’ troops fight and win against Pharnaces (son of Mihridates) of Pontus.
B.C.45, Kastor Tarkondarius the grandson of Deiotarus accuses his grandfather of plotting the assassination of Caesar.  In the Senate of Rome, Cicero successfully defends Deiotarus. (Speech in behalf of Deiotarus)
Diophanes of Nicaea writes an agricultural handbook in Greek and dedicates it to his benefactor Deiotarus. [38] 
B.C.40, Deiotarus dies of an illness at an advanced (75?) age.
B.C.40-37, Deiotarus II, son of Deiotarus becomes king.  However, he dies in the year 37.
B.C.36, Towards the end of this year, Amyntas, an assistant to and son-in-law of Deiotarus as well as a Trocmian tetrarch and son of a Brogitarus, becomes the new king of Galatia with Rome’s support. 
B.C. 25, Amyntas is killed during a visit to the newly conquered territory of Homonoids.  At the time of the death Amyntas, the Kingdom of Galatia is at its largest territorial size to include part of Phrygia towards Pisidia (Apollonia, Antioch and Iconium), Pisidia proper, part of Lycaonia (including Lystra and Derbe) and Isauria.
 B.C.25, Rome (Augustus) declares Galatia a province and extends Roman citizenship to Galatians.  The descendants of the Galatian kings are kept in the leadership roles of the Galatian society.  Galatian army is converted into a Roman legion and is called Legion XXII Deiotariana.  This is the beginning of Galatian recognition of Roman (Rum) identity that survived into the 21st century. 
B.C. 20, Rome appoints M. Lollius (formerly a consul in Rome) as the first governor of the Province of Galatia.
B.C. 6-5, Paphlagonia is added to the province of Galatia.
B.C. 3-2, Sebastapolis is added to the province of Galatia..
A.D. 1-2, Amasia is added to the province of Galatia.
A.D. 7-23,  Strabo writes about Galatians and their government administration.
A.D. 34-35,  Comana is added to the province of Galatia. Together with Paphlagonia, Sebastapolis and Amasia; this new region is called “Pontus Galaticus.”
 A.D.47-54, St. Paul visits and gives sermons in various cities of Galatia in Asia Minor.
A.D. 74, Roman Emperor Vespasian converts Galatia and Cappadocchia into a single province.  Galatia loses its importance.
A.D. 109 or 112/113, Roman Emperor Trajan converts Galatia back to being an individual province.
A.D.166, On an archaeological inscription found, it is stated that some Galatians continue to worship old ways and are proud of it:  "….from ancestral times, we have worshipped according to the ancient ways.” [39]
A.D. 2nd century, Pausanias writes about Galatians.
A.D. 2nd century, Lucian writes about a Galatian magician while Alexander of Paphlagonia states that he has no difficulty in finding Galatian speakers in Asia Minor.[40]
A.D. 295, Under emperor Diocletian's reorganization Galatia was divided, into two parts and the name retained for the northern part (now nearly identical with the Galatia of Deiotarus).
A.D. 330-379, Basil, the archbishop of Caesaria (Kayseri,) is known for his open dislike towards Romans of Galatian creed.[41]
A.D. 390, The province of Galatia, amplified by the addition of a few towns in the west, was divided into Galatia Prima and Secunda or Salutaris, the division indicating the renewed importance of Galatia in the Byzantine empire.
A.D. 347-420, St. Jerome states that Galatians speak the same language as the people of Treveri[42] (modern Trier, Germany.) 
A.D. 543 or later. A local priest is miraculously cured in St. Euthymius monastery after a seizure, and the priest starts talking in his native Galatian first after recovering. [43]
A.D. 7th century, St. Theodore, on his way back from Jerusalem, stays in a monastery in southern Galatia and remarks “Truly my children we have eaten like Galatians.” [44]
A.D. 740-811, A Roman general and a native of Mystia (Beyşehir) Bardanios Tourkos (Bard the Turk?)  revolts against emperor Nikephoros with the support of locals. [45] 
A.D. 8th century, Galatia is still in existence as a province of the Empire.[46]
A.D. 8th and 9th centuries: Persian and Arabic raids to Galatia.
A.D. 9th-10th centuries: increased Turkic excursions and immigrations to Galatia.
A.D. 1071 Battle of Manzikiert: East of Asia Minor invaded by the Great Seljuks, following the battle with Romans.
 1073-1074 Roussel de Bailleul arrives with his Franko/Celtic cavalry to serve Rome, but he quickly changes his mind and establishes the state of Galatia around Ankara.  He proceeds for an alliance with Seljuk Turks.  However, Emperor Alexius convinces Turks and offers Galatia in return for arrest of Roussel.  A Seljuk leader named Tutush plans an ambush during a banquet with Roussel unsuccessfully.  However, Roussel escapes and becomes a refugee in Amasia and later becomes the local governor with support of locals.
11th century, Anna Komnena, the author of Alexiad, refers to the new comer Franks as Gauls.  She often uses the words Frank, Gaul and Kelt alternatingly.  Modern historians attribute this usage to the ignorance of princess Komnena.[47]
11th century, F. Lequenne (a 19th-20th century French historian) claims the continued existence of Galatian forts.  According to him Galatians mix with Turkic immigrants and even admitted into the Janissary Corps. 
12th century, Anatolian Roman (Rum) Sultanate is established in Galatia.  In the state where majority of its constituents composed of Galatians, locals serve in the military and excel in the administration, while some prominent Turkic immigrants are known to name themselves as “Rumi” (Roman.) 
12th century, Sultans of Rum continue to seek services of foreign Frankish cavalry in their armies.  Frankish cavalry appears to be exceptionally useful to Seljuks. 
13th century, Crusader Franks arrive and establish the County of Urfa which will last for 50 years.  With these new comers, distinctively different than Galatians, the word “Frenk” becomes a standard word to describe Europeans.  This customary use of the word is still in use in rural Turkey, today. 
In many forts, mosques and buildings constructed after the 13th century, there are traces of infamous Celtic knots.  The Turkish puzzle ring could be another example. Even the current logo of the Turkish Department of Tourism contains an unintentional Celtic knot inspiration.
1348, In Istanbul, the famous Galata Tower, rebuilt by the Genoese.  The Galata Tower, one of the oldest standing towers of the world, was built at the time of emperor Anastasius in A.D. 507.  It is rumored  to have been financed by a local Galatian Celtic businessman.
 15th century. In the Karamanids army, there a regimens of soldiers that speak with a funny accent that sounds like the Black Sea coastal region’s accent.  Galatian merceneries?
19th century: Galatians are completely forgotten in the memory of locals.   And the word "galat" passes on to Turkish as a derogatory word meaning “unrefined,” or “error in speech.”  The true meaning of the word was forgotten so much that even the origin of it is shown as Arabic in the contemporary dictionaries.[48]  
1947, The Turkish translation of a book by Ernest Chaput regarding geological and geomorphologic surveys in Turkey contains words such “Plains of Galatia,” “Plains of Likaonya,” or “Pontic,” literally copied by the Turkish translators shows that such names were still in use by then.[49]   As a result of Turkification policies of geographical names, Galatia was also hit along with some other 30,000+ geographical names. 
1974, Following the Turkey’s invasion of the northern Cyprus, the name of the village of Galatia, there, was changed to Turkish “Mehmetcik.”  The original human stock of the village is said to have been populated by the forced settlement of the natives of the Sivas province of Turkey, hence one of the last strongholds of the Galatian Trocmis….

References and Notes
Pliny, Naturalis Historia, 3.iv.36 A.D. 77-79.
Justin (Marcus Junianus Justinus), Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeis Trogus,  Book XLIII.5
Herodotus, Book II, p. 98, and Book IV, p.232.
Hecataeus, Fragment 55
Freemen, Philip, “The Philosopher and the Druids,” p.82
Xenophen,  Hellenica 7.1.20-32,  Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA; William Heinemann, Ltd., London. vol. 1:1985; vol. 2: 1986.
Diodorus Siculus. Library, 15.70.1, English Translation by C. H. Oldfather. Vol. 4-8{title}. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press; London: William Heinemann, Ltd. 1989.
Freeman, Philip, “The Philosopher and the Druids,” p.27
Strabo, Geographika, VII.3.8, English translation, three volumes. London. George Bell & Sons. 1903.
Callimachus, “Hymns of Callimachus,” Hymns #4, Hymn to Delos,  ¶171, Hymns of Callimachus, translated by A. W. Mair.
Sopater, fragment 6 Kassel-Austin, quoted by Athenaeus (fl. c. AD 200) iv.160, tr. C.B. Gulick, Athenaus II (London and Cambridge, MA, 1928) 230f.
Strabo, Geographika XIII 4.1.
Pausanias, “10.19.15”
Polybius, number of Celts in Balkans
Mitchell, S., "Anatolia: Land, Men, and Gods in Asia Minor," pp. 14-15, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1995.
The order and timing of the historical developments between B.C. 280 and 277 are poorly understood due to the scarcity and poor consistency of the available material.  Therefore, the chronological order presented between 280-270 is my own rendering of the events and the readers (students and researchers) should be taking it by the grain of salt.
Memnon, Peri Herakleia, 11.2
Livy, Ab urbe condita,  XXXVIII 16.6-9. Pausanias, Periegesis tes Helledos X 23.4
Justin, Epitom?, 26.2.2
Julij Emilov, The Galatians and Cabyle
Habicht 1973, 453, Mitchell, 1993 I, 16.
Freeman, p.46-48
Strobel, “The Galatians in the Roman Empire: historical tradition and ethnic identity in Hellenistic and Roman Asia Minor,” p.123, Ethnic Constructs in Antiquity, Amsterdam University Press, 2009.
Mitchel? No credible evidence for galatian pontic war
Magie, 1950, 5
Ramsay, p.232
Livy, 38.19
Tite-Live, XXXVIII, 19. — Florus, ibid .
Darbyshire, 2000
Livius, 44.26
Mittchel, p.23
Ramsay, p.234., Strabo, Vol. IX, 212, M.Ö. 180, Polybius, 24.14.6.
Ramsay, p.235
Plutarch, “Moralia, Bravery of Women,” Section XX.
Strobel, p.132, 2009
Duffy, Kevin, “Who were the Celts?” p.94, Barnes and Nobles Books, 1996.
Marcus Terentius Varro, De Re Rustica, 1.1.10.
Freeman, The Philosopher and the Druids, p.45
Lucian, Alexander 51 also (Celtic Culture, p.847, John T, Coch, 2006)
Ramsay, p.295, via Basil in Epistulae 207.1, Gregory of Nyssa in Epistulae 20 and Contra Eunomium
Jerome, "De Viris Illustribus," Chapter 135
via Mittchel, Vol. 1, p.50, Cyril of Scythopolis, vita S. Euthymii, p.55 (Ed. E. Schwartz, 1939)
The Life of St. Theodore, Biography, passage 64.
Umar, p.55 “Türkiye Halkının Ortaçağ Tarihi”
David Rankin, Celts and the Classical World, p.206
Anna Komnena, Alexiad, Book1, Book 9, and Book 12, translated by Elizabeth A. Dawes in 1928
Redhouse, see entry item for "Galat"
Ayşe Hür, Taraf Gazetesi, 2 Mart 2009

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